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First of all, you’ll need to determine what your surface is made of. It can be Wood Veneer which is a thin layer of beautiful wood grain on top of an inexpensive wood or Solid Wood.
How to determine what you’re working with
Solid Wood or Wood Veneer
The easiest way to tell if it’s Solid Wood or Wood Veneer is to look at the back of the top of your piece. Solid wood will be wood grain all the way through and if it’s Wood Veneer you’ll see a thin layer running across the top in a different direction than the wood under it which may be particle board or a cheaper wood. If it’s a table top that may be hard to do but if you have multiple wood grains going in different directions or in a pattern on the top you can easily assume it’s Wood Veneer. Solid Wood grain runs in one direction.
How to Stain Solid Wood or Wood Veneer
Since Wood Veneer is essentially a thin layer of wood you have two choices in products that can be used to stain the surface. First we’ll discuss a Penetrating Stain like Fusion Stain & Finishing Oil. Secondly, we’ll discuss Gel Stain like General Finishes Gel Stain. Both are great options but prep is very different.
- Sanding -You can sand the surface carefully using a sander, starting with 80 grit and gradually moving up to 180 grit (80, 120, 150, 180). Sand with the grain using very little pressure. Just let the sander do the work. Sand CAREFULLY if you’re sanding veneer because you do not want to go through the thin layer of Veneer and expose the particle board or wood type surface under the Veneer. You do not want to use any higher than a 180 grit or it will close the grain of the wood and make it hard for stain to penetrate the surface. In order to use Penetrating Stain it will need to be sanded to raw wood. If you’d prefer to Strip the surface instead of sanding move to the next step.
- Stripper – If you’d prefer to strip rather than sand the surface you can use a Chemical Stripper like Blue Bear Remover which may require several coats to remove the finish depending on how many layers of stain, paint or sealer are on the surface. Please make sure to use Stripper in a well ventilated area and wear a face mask or respirator. After all of the existing finish is removed, sand with a 180 grit, with the grain, to smooth the surface and clean with Mineral Spirits.
- Wood Filler – If you have areas that need wood filler I recommend using a colored wood filler close to the color you’re staining. When using Penetrating Stain it can be hard to totally camouflage areas that have been repaired with filler. If you’re are not happy with those areas showing you might want to consider using Gel Stain (below) which will hide those areas nicely.
- Wood Conditioner – In order to get an even stained finish I always use a oil based wood conditioner on the surface before staining. I recommend this one.
- Application – I use a lint free rag to wipe on Penetrating Stain with the grain of the wood making sure to wipe off excess. Wiping across the surface, with the grain of the wood, in long strokes to remove any excess will insure an even stained surface. More than one coat may be required to get the color you’re wanting.
Gel Stain like General Finishes Gel Stain can be applied over an existing finish or raw wood.
Existing Finish – simply clean with Fusion TSP, fill any holes with wood filler and you’re ready to apply Gel Stain. No sanding or wood conditioner needed. Gel Stain is self leveling and is very good at covering small scratches and defects in the surface. Gel Stain can be applied with a brush like paint or with a rag to show more wood grain. I recommend using an inexpensive Chip Brush that you can thrown away or clean with mineral spirits after use.
Raw Wood – Follow the steps above for applying Penetrating Stain or if you’d like a more opaque look follow steps above for applying over an existing finish.
NOTE: General Finishes Gel Stain needs to be sealed with a top coat. I recommend General Finishes Arm-R-Seal or Satin Gel Topcoat. Go HERE to read more about General Finishes Gel Stain & Topcoats and how to apply.
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Jeff & Selina